Requirements for the installation of solar panels in Spain for self-consumption
To install solar panels in Spain on the roof of your house and have a legalized installation, a series of requirements must be met. We tell you what they are, starting with the condition of the roof, its orientation and shading and ending with the urban and electrical regulations.
Fortunately or unfortunately, in order to install a photovoltaic system for self-consumption, not only do we have to want it, but the conditions of our home must allow us to do so. Here are the main requirements for the installation of solar panels.
A suitable cover
The main and most limiting requirement will be our roof, as this is where the generating elements of the photovoltaic system, the panels, will be located.
Condition of the roof
The state of the roof of the house is one of the main requirements when installing solar panels. The photovoltaic panels are attached by means of a support structure to the structure of the house, not to the roof tiles. However, the covering of the structure (tiles / asphalt / etc.) is an insulating medium, it prevents water leakage and it is necessary to keep it in good condition.
A cover in poor condition presents a risk of leakage or delamination. Its good condition is achieved by maintenance every few years. It is recommended that if your roof is in poor condition, you repair it before installing a PV system on it for the following reasons:
Possible breakage of the tiles during installation, endangering workers and the waterproofing of the roof
Risk of having to renew the roof in a few years. This means having to dismantle and reassemble the system.
Roof orientation Solar panel installation in Spain
The orientation of the roof and the solar panels is another very important requirement for the installation of solar panels. Photovoltaic technology needs solar radiation to work, and the more hours per year it produces, the more energy it will generate, so its location is extremely important.
We are in the northern hemisphere, so the further south we face, the more radiation we will receive. However, in many cases, our available terrace (without shade, without equipment and without enough space) will not face south. This is not a problem if you have more alternatives. For example, facing east is a good option, as long as your consumption is in the morning, or west if it is in the evening.
On the contrary, if the only possibility is to face north, photovoltaic is not for you, you will have to bet on another renewable alternative.
On the one hand, many hours of sunlight are an ally, but shadows are the enemy of a photovoltaic system.
If you want to install solar panels, an important condition for the installation is the lack of shadows. These do not have to affect the selected area of your roof, and the most prudent thing is to do it during the winter months, as a shadow can reduce all our energy production from the system to almost 0.
There are elements that help point shadows not to affect the whole system, but in any case, if our system is affected by shadows, it will decrease its performance. It is important to know that recurrent exposure of remains on a photovoltaic panel can permanently damage it.
Legal requirements for the installation of solar panels: regulations and rules
The regulations for self-consumption impose certain aspects to be respected for the installation of solar panels and for their use. In any case, your installation must comply with the following regulations.
The installation of photovoltaic systems is included in the construction sector, which means that in all cases a work permit must be requested to proceed with their installation. This can be of different periods depending on the locality or autonomy: major works, minor works, responsible declaration…
Failure to apply for them implies a breach of the law and in case of knowledge of the authorities, sanctions will be applied.
It is important that the building on which the photovoltaic modules will be installed is a properly legalized construction, because if it is not, you will never get them. Other factors will be important to take into account when applying for urban authorisation: type of land (rural or urban), area (historical, natural, etc.). The best thing to do is to contact the local council to make sure that the house is suitable before incurring any further expenses.
Electrical regulation Installation of solar panels in Spain
Any electrical installation installed in a building must be registered and legalised with the industry. Photovoltaic installations are electrical generation systems that follow this rule.
For an electrical installation to be legal, it must have been carried out in accordance with the procedures established in the electrical regulations in terms of low voltage and self-consumption, always using equipment that is compatible and certified for use in Spain.
The installation must be registered and validated by a certified installer, as there is a legal responsibility. Make sure that the installer provides the electrical installation certificate (CIE) of the photovoltaic installation, duly completed and registered once the installation is completed.
Remember that in order to receive compensation for the surplus, the installation must be legalised.
Source for the article on the installation of solar panels in Spain: www.otovo.es